Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an spot of 27,925 square miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by indigenous chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land intended as a home for African settlers who have been waifs in London and later it was utilised as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on twenty first August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and became a Republic in 1971. Schooling is provided by equally non-public and point out-sponsored educational institutions. The existing method of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that is six many years Principal school, three many years Junior Secondary School, four many years Senior Secondary College and 4 many years tertiary/higher schooling. This system is complemented by non- formal schooling.
Principle OF Education
Education and learning is frequently utilized in the feeling of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science area and is composed principally in the imparting by the teacher, and the acquisition by pupils, of information and psychological as properly as guide abilities. A broader indicating than instruction is that of schooling. That is to say all that goes on in the school as component of the pupil’s existence there. It contains, amongst other things, partnership among pupils and lecturers, pupils and pupils the two in and outdoors the university. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter what aids to condition the human becoming to make the person what he is or hinder him from becoming what he is not is component of his education. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum whole of all influences which go to make a individual what he is, from start to dying. It involves the residence, our neighbors, and the avenue amongst other folks.
Education and learning is to some extent a deliberate prepared method devised and conducted by the educator with the function of imbuing the learner with particular info, abilities, of head and body as nicely as modes of behavior regarded appealing. In part it is the learner’s very own reaction to the environment in which he lives. Schooling has three focal factors: the person/individual upon whom the educator’s influences are introduced to bear the modern society or community to which he belongs and the total context of truth inside which the specific and modern society engage in their element. Man is a social creature he grows as a particular person by way of the effect of individuality on character and even for his basic physical demands he depends on the aid and cooperation of his fellow males and girls. With out society and the mutual help and enrichment of experiences which it supplies civilization is unattainable and the daily life of guy, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, terrible, brutish and quick.”
1 of the elementary specifics of human existence is the rigidity amongst the pull of the previous and the forward urge into the long term, amongst steadiness and change, custom and innovation. For powerful dwelling,man needs a circle of protection, an area of established behavior and relationship which kinds reliable interactions. This is also correct of society. For its powerful performing there need to be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a modern society and safeguards it against the disruptive outcomes of adjust. Change have to be for daily life and not static but this change in turn need to be controlled by the simple traditions of society. It is custom which presents a country its character and distinctiveness as a modern society. The conservation of tradition as a result is certainly crucial.
It has been identified from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional schooling has a crucial component to play in the advancement of the little one. The children of these days are the grown ups of tomorrow they need to be skilled consequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of existence peculiar to the particular society to which they belong. For every modern society has the want to protect itself not only bodily but as community consciously sharing certain aims, ideals and patterns of habits. This variety of education is not necessarily formal in faculties by indicates of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by means of the family members and by means of the effect on the individual of social influences and customs which the youngster cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social education incorporated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance in which young gentlemen and girls need to demonstrate by themselves deserving of the community. The greatest purpose was to make an individual who was sincere, respectful, skilled, cooperative, and who could conform to the social buy of the day. As Aristotle as soon as stated “the structure of a point out will undergo if training is neglected. The citizens of a point out need to usually be educated to go well with the constitution of the state. The type of character suitable to a structure is the power which continues to maintain it as it is also the point out power which at first designed it” (p. I).
Conventional Schooling IN Society
Classic schooling has equally a inventive and conservation operate in society it is a strong indicates of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. In the previous the mother nature and demands of modern society played a crucial component in deciding the mother nature of education. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his e-book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the academic program will have a tendency to mirror the social pattern, although social uneasiness and instability generate possibility for utilizing training as an instrument of social change”(p.7). A equivalent look at was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by way of training society can formulate its very own functions, can organize its possess indicates and methods and as a result help save alone with definiteness and economic system in the direction in which it needs to transfer. Schooling seems to be each to the earlier and the potential inevitably it reflects the traditions and character of society. Classic education can be utilised to prepare for adjustments in culture and foresee and avoid modifications or the consequences of alterations in culture.
Traditional education conserves and palms on the customs and techniques of existence which constitute the character of a culture and maintains its unity. It also assists culture to interpret its functions in new methods to satisfy the issues of adjust, in search of ways or strains of improvement which are regular with the traditions and customs and will at the very same time raise modern society to a much more total achievement of itself.
Classic Academic Establishments IN SIERRA LEONE
Heritage reveals that there were no official educational institutions exactly where children ended up educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been seemed on as institutions to prepare youngsters. They ended up bush schools. And the training these bush schools offered was casual. Kids who went by way of these mystery societies ended up regarded as capable of carrying out their civic tasks. They turned older people and can marry and commence existence. They deemed themselves as a single family members. In other phrases each Key Societies designed a perception of comradeship and unity among customers irrespective of family, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was consequently regarded that youngsters who had not absent via these secret societies have been not entirely matured.
The Poro Magic formula Culture is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen only by the older graduates or customers. The actual physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They immediate the routines of the institution. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who generally train and give recommendations to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas serve as lecturers to the initiates although the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the females and youngsters alike with each other with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages close to. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whilst the Sayboms are the prefects and the displays are the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in the Key Poro Bush. The topics taught incorporate Imaginative Practical Arts, Executing Arts, Practical Agriculture, Medicine i.e. use of nearby herbs for the treatment method of diverse conditions), warfare and other abilities. In Inventive Functional Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wood and cleaning soap stones into different objects this sort of as animals and human beings in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical devices. In Practical Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with no complaint and grow accustomed to it. As a result they are taken to the farms of their instructors and elders to operate on professional bono foundation. Even so throughout the harvest time initiates could move via these farms using what ever they need and take in without having getting questioned by farm owners. Initiates are taught to regard elders and use of guns to get rid of animals. In a related vein initiates are taught how to use guns in combating in protection of their communities. Other expertise initiates are taught consist of creating fish traps, fishing and looking internet, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates pay out funds (some freely presented) for healing various sicknesses as well as for safety from enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to cause damage to other people employing herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/drugs involved. In excess of all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by associates called Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika meaning I am chatting to you fonka bonomi meaning Talk to me. The use of this new Language makes graduates quite very pleased and truly feel different from non-initiates. Graduates occur out with new names such as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the occasion.
Dad and mom make substantial preparations including stitching attire for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, drinking, dancing and singing praise tunes for the graduates and their parents. People certified for initiation have to have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They have to live on their possess during the time period of education which ranges from one particular to 7 a long time. Graduates are fully admitted to the standard Poro society by means of an additional ceremony named Enkorie, which lasts for four times.
The Bondo/Sande Society is the institution where girls are educated for womanhood. Its religious head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have non secular powers utilized to foretell the potential and catch witches. They are the senior academics. The Na Sokos are the service lecturers. They can initiate women even up to the advanced phase of the Society. The Digbas are the basic academics and remain near to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand ladies/ladies. They make bulletins about the progress and actions or programs throughout the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the title indicates do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They have the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the greater standing of the institution. Ladies admitted to the Bondo/Sande Modern society are skilled informally. Lessons are held at Kantha or sacred home. The teachers are mainly involved with the transmission to these adolescent women the abilities and knowledge which grownup ladies are expected to have in purchase to perform effectively and intelligently in their group. The subjects women are taught consist of Cooking, Carrying out Arts, Fishing, Spouse and Kid Care, and Home Administration. In Cooking ladies are taught how to prepare foods through observation and participation in the preparation of a variety of dishes and are later on authorized to have a go with little or no supervision. These who could not cook effectively are permitted to repeat. In Executing Arts girls are taught how to compose and sing music and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing girls are taught how to dance and those who dance well may possibly be a part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Girls are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. More women are taught how to aid their possible husbands and how to take treatment of kids especially people of senior users. Like the Poro Society graduation ceremonies are marked by substantial preparations. Equally dad and mom and possible husbands would buy new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the working day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They come out with new names such as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a indication of maturity. Initiating girls into Bondo/Sande modern society lasts amongst a handful of months and a few years.
If training has the important operate of perpetuating the traditions and values of culture, of adapting them to a modifying environment, and of elevating them to richer and more fruitful expression then the two the Poro and Bondo/Sande Magic formula Societies, as classic brokers of this method must enjoy a situation of the maximum esteem. Through these key societies the nation’s lifestyle flows from 1 generation to the other and the aspirations of modern society are concentrated with intimate and telling persuasion on the young. They stand at a position exactly where the energies of young children are released into new and innovative opportunities. Through these key societies kids keep in mind the previous pursuits of their predecessors. They assist in behavioral coaching designs of culture. These societies are establishments of inspiration and equally politicians and chiefs use them to advantage. That is to possibly obtain or preserve energy. Main and binding decisions are taken in the Poro Bush of which only customers are permitted to show up at and take element. The Poro Key Society acts as a check against the abuse of power. In disaster ridden scenarios significant selection are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro culture even functions as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate general regulations and control investing practices. It is also involved in the burial of chiefs and other essential nearby officials (Alie, 1990).
Western training has existed in the nation for extended and is now so integral portion of the civilized life that there is a inclination to believe that it is the primary or sole signifies of imparting expertise, expertise and social values in children. This is not the scenario in Sierra Leone. The value of the Poro and Bondo conventional magic formula societies can’t be in excess of-sighted due to the fact of their huge potentiality in educating youngsters for daily life in culture. Fundamental is that respect for persons as persons is the foundation of conventional culture. Connected with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the demands of other people, cooperativeness, self-self-discipline, ethical and actual physical courage, difficult function and high standards of accomplishment. These are passed on to young children in the environment in which they are component of their day-to-day encounters. Notwithstanding, these standard institutions as agents of training are currently faced with many challenges there-by forcing their demise. The exercise of female genital circumcision is of intercontinental concern and in Sierra Leone men and women are agitating for its complete ban. Currently women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen during which time a youngster is perceived to be matured sufficient to choose regardless of whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande key society. In addition the interval of initiation is perceived also lengthy and is getting challenged. Besides youngsters these days no more time have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be clean, prepare dinner, rear youngsters, apply agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a number of examples. All these could be learnt possibly in or outside the house formal education through reading. What is a lot more Religion, especially Christianity and Islam, western daily life, as properly as rural-urban migration are forcing these magic formula societies to obliteration.
Besides the activities and operate of these traditional societies are not in curriculum sort and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. Consequently by discontinuing these conventional key societies Sierra Leoneans stand to get rid of their cultural heritage. If nevertheless, education and learning has the essential purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering atmosphere, and of elevating them to a richer and more fruitful expression then these conventional key societies, as agents of this procedure must get pleasure from a placement of the optimum esteem. Via these societies the countrywide culture flows from 1 generation to one more and the aspirations of society are centered with personal and telling persuasion on the younger. These secret societies stand at the level in which the energies of kids are introduced into new and inventive choices.